Ansari MJ. Role of protease inhibitors in Insulin therapy of Diabetes: are these beneficial? Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2015; 4(11): 1-8. (ISI indexed).
For the treatment of diabetes, currently available insulin replenishment is the most successful therapy which improves
insulin receptor sensitivity, reduces glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. However, insulin injection therapy has disadvantages
such as pain, inconvenience of multiple injections, allergic reactions, hyper-insulinemia, and insulin lipodystrophy at
injection site. Non-invasive delivery of insulin would eliminate side effects, compliance problems to treatment adherence
and other complications associated with insulin injection therapy such as pain caused by injection, psychological barriers
associated with multiple daily injections such as needle anxiety and possible infections. Several approaches have been
developed to improve bioavailability of insulin, such as use of protease inhibitors to prevent enzymatic degradation of
insulin, enhancement of membrane permeability or widening of tight junctions to improve absorption of insulin, and
development of novel insulin carriers. Protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, bacitracin and camostat are known to
improve insulin absorption and bioavailability as evident by several experimental and clinical studies. However, these
are not approved for use in combination with insulin to treat diabetes. This may be due to the adverse effects associated
with use of protease inhibitors as well as lack of sufficient clinical data. Moreover, there are reports which indicate that
there is no clear-cut benefit of protease inhibitors when these were used in combination with insulin to treat the
diabetes. This review article mainly focuses on role of different protease inhibitors to improve therapeutic usefulness of
insulin. Moreover, the risks or adverse effect associated with protease inhibitors have been discussed.
محتويات مواقع أعضاء هيئة التدريس بما فيها من نصوص وملفات وصور وأبحاث وأية مواد أخرى هي مسئولية عضو هيئة التدريس بالكامل بصفته صاحب الموقع وبما له من صلاحية مطلقة في الإضافة والحذف، وتخلي الجامعة مسئوليتها عن محتويات تلك المواقع.
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