Chapter 1 – Introduction to Bacteriology
· Bacteria are the most abundant group of microorganisms in nature. It is found everywhere on the planet, such as hot spring, deep ocean, deserts and even thrive inside our intestine.
· The term bacterium was given by Ehrenberg.
· The branch of science which deals with the study of bacteria is known as Bacteriology.
· Smallest bacteria: Dialister pneumonsintes
· Largest bacteria: Epulopiscium fishelsoni
· Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms (Kingdom:Monera)
· They do not have cell defined organelles like mitochondria, Golgi bodies, Endoplasmic reticulum.,etc
· They are Microscopic, unicellular
· They may occur singly or in small groups to form colonies.
· They posses rigid cell wall. Cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan (Mureins) and Lipo polysaccharides.
· Absence of well defined nucleus.i.e., DNA is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane.
· Ribosomes are scattered in the cytoplasmic matrix and are of 70S type.
· The plasma membrane is invaginated to form mesosomes.
· Most of the bacteria are heterotrophic. Some bacteria are autotrophic, posses bacteriochlorophyll,
· Motile bacteria posses one or more flagella.
· The common method of multiplication is binary fission.
· True sexual reproduction is lacking, but genetic recombination occurs by conjugation ,transformation and transduction
The most basic method used for identifying bacteria is based on the bacterium's shape and cell arrangement.
Cocci (or coccus for a single cell) are round cells, sometimes slightly flattened when they are adjacent to one another.
· Cocci bacteria in pairs is called as Diplococci ex:Diplococcus pneumoniae
· Cocci in chains is called as Streptococci- ex:Streptococcus
· Cocci in clusters/ groups is called as Staphylococci- ex:Staphylococcus aurens
· Cocci in four is called as Tetracocci- ex:Genus Micrococcus often divide in two planes to form square groups of 4 cells called Tetrad
· Coccin in eight is called as Sarcine- ex:Sarcina lutea
Bacilli (or bacillus for a single cell) are rod-shaped bacteria. Like coccus bacteria, bacilli can occur singly, in pairs, or in chains. Examples - Rod shaped ex: Bacillus subtilis,
Comma shaped bacteria is Vibrio cholerae
Spirilla (or spirillum for a single cell) are curved bacteria which can range from a gently curved shape to a corkscrew-like spiral.
Many spirilla are rigid and capable of movement.
A special group of spirilla known as spirochetes are long, slender, and flexible. Ex: Spirillum volutans
Bacteria which often changes its shape is called Pleomorphic- ex: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Economic importance of Bacteria:
1. Bacteria as decomposers- Bacteria in soil fix atmospheric nitrogen and ammonia in roots and helps in plants and soil fertility
· Nitrifying bacteria –Nitrosomonas , Nitrobacter, Rhizobium & Azotobacter
· Ammonifying bacteria
2. Bacteria are used in food production. Ex:
· Soy sauce-Pediococcus
3. Bacteria are also used in various industries. Ex:
Fibre retting- Clostridium felsineum &Clostridium pectinovorum
Industrial production of organic compound- Acrylic acid & Proplene Glycol-Bacillus species
Bacteria in dairy products- Lactic acid bacteria
Bacteria in the production of vitamins- Riboflavin (Vitamin B) -Clostridium butylicum
· Cobalamine (Vitamin B12) -Pseudomonas denitrificans
Bacteria in the production of antibiotics
· Bacitracin- Bacillus subtilis
· Aureomycin – Streptomyces species
· Terramycin – Streptomyces rimosus
· Streptomycin-Streptomyces griseus
Bacteria in the production of enzymes
· Streptokinase-Streptococcus pyogenes
· Proteokinase- Bacillus subtilis
· Amylase-Bacillus species
Bacteria in the production of Steroids - Cornyebacterium & Streptomyces
Abilo Tadesse, Meseret Alem University of Gondar
• Bacteria are the most abundant group of microorganisms in nature. It is found everywhere on the pl
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