Microbiological examination of water, water purification, biological degradation of waste are studied in this branch
Aquatic microbiology is the science that deals with microscopic living organisms in fresh or salt water systems. While aquatic microbiology can encompass all microorganisms , including microscopic plants and animals, it more commonly refers to the study of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their relation to other organisms in the aquatic environment .
Research spans a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from the molecular biology and physiology towards the population dynamics and ecosystem ecology of aquatic micro-organisms.
Bacteria are quite diverse in nature . The scientific classification of bacteria divides them into 19 major groups based on their shape, cell structure, staining properties (used in the laboratory for identification), and metabolic functions. Bacteria occur in many sizes as well ranging from 0.1 micrometer to greater than 500 micrometers. Some are motile and have flagella, which are tail-like structures used for movement.
Although soil is the most common habitat of fungi, they are also found in aquatic environments. Aquatic fungi are collectively called water molds oraquatic Phycomycetes. They are found on the surface of decaying plant and animal matter in ponds and streams. Some fungi are parasitic and prey on algae and protozoa.
Viruses are the smallest group of microorganisms and usually are viewed only with the aid of an electron microscope. They are disease-causing organisms that are very different than bacteria, fungi, and other cellular life-forms. Viruses are infectious nucleic acid enclosed within a coat of protein. They penetrate host cells and use the nucleic acid of other cells to replicate.
Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are widely distributed throughout aquatic environments. They can be found in fresh water rivers, lakes, and streams, in the surface waters and sediments of the world's oceans, and even in hot springs. They have even been found supporting diverse communities at hydrothermal vents in the depths of the oceans.
Microorganisms living in these diverse environments must deal with a wide range of physical conditions, and each has specific adaptations to live in the particular place it calls home. For example, some have adapted to live in fresh waters with very low salinity , while others live in the saltiest parts of the ocean. Some must deal with the harsh cold of arctic waters, while those in hot springs are subjected to intense heat. In addition, aquatic microorganisms can be found living in environments where there are extremes in other physical parameters such as pressure, sunlight, organic substances, dissolved gases, and water clarity.
Aquatic microorganisms obtain nutrition in a variety of ways. For example, some bacteria living near the surface of either fresh or marine waters, where there is often abundant sunlight, are able to produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis . Bacteria living at hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor where there is no sunlight can produce their own food through a process known as chemosynthesis , which depends on preformed organic carbon as an energy source. Many other microorganisms are not able to produce their own food. Rather, they obtain necessary nutrition from the breakdown of organic matter such as dead organisms.
Aquatic microorganisms play a vital role in the cycling of nutrients within their environment, and thus are a crucial part of the food chain/web . Many microorganisms obtain their nutrition by breaking down organic matter in dead plants and animals. As a result of this process of decay, nutrients are released in a form usable by plants. These aquatic microorganisms are especially important in the cycling of the nutrients nitrogen , phosphorus , and carbon. Without this recycling , plants would have few, if any, organic nutrients to use for growth.
In addition to breaking down organic matter and recycling it into a form of nutrients that plants can use, many of the microorganisms become food themselves. There are many types of animals that graze on bacteria and fungi. For example, some deposit-feeding marine worms ingest sediments and digest numerous bacteria and fungi found there, later expelling the indigestible sediments. Therefore, these microorganisms are intimate members of the food web in at least two ways.
Humans have taken advantage of the role these microorganisms play in nutrient cycles. At sewage treatment plants, microscopic bacteria are cultured and then used to break down human wastes. However, in addition to the beneficial uses of some aquatic microorganisms, others may cause problems for people because they are pathogens, which can cause serious diseases. For example, viruses such as Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi, and the Norwalk virus are found in water contaminated by sewage can cause illness. Fecal coliform (E. coli ) bacteria and Enterococcus bacteria are two types of microorganisms that are used to indicate the presence of disease causing microorganisms in aquatic environments
Bortman, Marci L.. "Aquatic Microbiology." Environmental Encyclopedia. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. (December 19, 2014)
Water Quality analysis
for Coliform Testing
The Antibiotic Era Revisited - Perspectives on Ocean Science
Jonathan J. Cole Ecosystems (1999) 2: 215–225
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