Name Another Details
Gram positive bacteria-I

This topic covers about Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptomyces  - its characteristics, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention methods.

Gram positive bacteria-II
  • This topic deals with the bacteria Mycoplasma, Nocardia, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Ureaplasma - its characteristics, pathogenesis, lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
Gram negative bacteria-I

This lecture covers the bacteria Borrelia, Bordetella , Burkholderia, Chromobacterium- its characteristics, pathogenesis,lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures.

Gram negative bacteria-II

This lecture covers the bacteria Camphylobacter, Helicobacter, Legionella, Flavobacterium, Gardenella- its characteristics, pathogenesis,lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures.

Gram positive anaerobes:
  • This topic covers the bacteria Peptostreptococcus, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, - its characteristics, pathogenesis,lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures.
Gram negative anaerobes

This lecture deals with the bacteria Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, Pasteurella - its characteristics, pathogenesis,lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures.

Non-fermenters bacteria

Discusses about the bacteria Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alcaligens, Olisells, Flavimonas, Agrobacter, WeeksiellaFlavobacter - its characteristics, pathogenesis,lab diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures.

Zoonotic diseases

This lecture includes, Introduction & Definition of Zoonoses,Types, Vectors, life cycle, treatment and their control

Opportunistic pathogens

Includes Study of opportunistic bacterial pathogens- its diseases, lab diagnosis and treatment measures

Isolation and identification of bacteria from different sources

Types of swabs, method of collection, Culture media preparation, Different Staining procedures, Biochemical tests, Analysis and interpretation of results 

Cultivation of anaerobes

This lecture discusses about the cultivation of anaerobes, Transport and storage of specimens

Quality control and maintenance of standards

Discusses about the Laboratory Quality control and maintenance of standards and Hospital waste disposal methods

Ethical committee and their functions

Knowledge of Medical Ethics and their functions, Role of ethics in medical research

MLAB-481  -  Clinical Bacteriology -II
Units Hours
Theoretical Practical
15 60 45
Course Catalog Description

This course will apply and enforce knowledge and skills acquired in MLAB 471. Observation and study of less commonly isolated bacteria such as gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes, non-fermenters bacteria, opportunistic bacteria in relation to various intensive care units. Additionally regrouping pathogenic bacteria in relation to body-infection systems with emphasis on clinical signs and symptoms of the diseases they cause; proper methods of collecting ,transporting and processing appropriate clinical specimens, and laboratory methods, cultural and non cultural, that are used for their identification. In the laboratory component, students will process blood, cerebro spinal fluid, sputum, urine, throat swabs, and stool specimens. Emphasis will be placed on isolation and identification of bacteria, selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy, quality assurance and safety.

Course Requirements

Pre-requisites for this course : MLAB 471, General Microbiology

The main purpose of this course is to provide students of applied medical sciences with a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to Clinical Bacteriology including basic scientific knowledge as well as cognitive, psychomotor and interpersonal and numerical skills in the most reliable, easy, attractive and illustrated manner.

         At the end of this course the students should be able to

1.                  Know the different aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

2.                  Identify the diseases caused by them

3.                  Familiarize with the different methods of sample collection techniques

4.                  Learn the basics blood culture technique

5.                  Recognize the lab animal breeding and their uses



      1. Salle, A.J. (1992). Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology. 7th Edition, Mc. Graw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New York.

     2. Ananthanarayanan R. and Jayaram Panicker C.K. (1994). Text book of Microbiology. Orient Longman.

     3. Baron, E.J. and Finegold S.M. (1995). Scientific Company. Diagnostic Microbiology. Blackwell Scientific Company 


1.      Bergeys Manual of determinative Bacteriology.

2.      Mackie and Mc catney, 1994, Medical Microbiology No I and II. Churchill Livingston, 14th edition.

3.      Chakraborty P 1995, A Text book of microbiology, New Central Book Agency Pvt Ltd. Calcutta.

4.      Bailey and Scotts, 1994, Diagnostic Microbiology, 9th edition, Baron and Finegold CV Mosby Publications.

5.      Jawetz E Melnic JL and Adelberg EA 1998, review of Medical Microbiology Lange Medical Publications, USA.


Dr.Mohamudha Parveen Rahamathulla

Grading Policy
Evaluation Type Weight
   1 .  I term exam 10 % ()
   2 .  II term exam 10 % ()
   3 .  Participation 10 % ()
   4 .  Practicals 20 % ()
   5 .  Final theory exam 50 % ()
Learning Outcome