Name Another Details
Introduction: • General Characteristics of bacteria

This introductory lecture describes about the Kingdom Bacteria, Their types, hosts, living places, General Characteristics and major types

Taxonomy and Classification of bacteria

This lecture speaks about the taxonomy. i.e. classification of bacteria

Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology

Hacekel's three kingdom concept

Binomial nomenclature and its rules etc...

Normal microbial flora of human body

This topic describes about the commensols or normal flora of the human body- their different locations- list of normal flora- source of origin- their advantages and disadvantages.

Host Parasite Relationship

This topic describes about the different types of infections- definitions of host parasite relationships- Sources of infection- methods of transmission of infections-microbial pathogenecity etc..

Mechanisms of Bacteria Pathogenecity

This lecture focusses on the definition of viruence, pathogenecity - different types of virulence factorsin bacteria, toxins, adherence factors, capsules, pathogenecity island, etc.

Gram Positive Bacteria- I

This topic covers Gram Positive bacteria like Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Neiserria Spp, Pneumococci-- Their structure, virulence factors, characters, diseases, lab diagnosis and control measures.

Gram Positive Bacteria-II
This topic covers Gram Postive bacteria such as Bacillus sp. , Listeria monocytogenes Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae , Corynebacterium sp., Gardnerella vaginalis , Lactobacillus sp. Nocardia sp., Actinomyces sp., & Streptomyces- their pathogenecity, diseases and control measures.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Introduction- Classification of tubercle bacilli- disease caused- pathogenecity factors- lab diagnosis- control measures and drug resistance

Mycobacterium leprae

About Mycobacterium leprae, virulence factors, disease caused, lab diagnopsis and treatment mesures

Anti tuberculosis treatment

This lecture speaks indetail about tuberculosis disease, its stages, drugs, side effects etc.

Anaerobic Bacilli-Clostridium

Describes about the anaerobic pathogenic bacteria- Clostridium perfringes, Clostridium botulium and Clostridium tetani- Pathogenecity- diseases- lab diagnosis and Control measures


Describes in detail about the Enterobacteriacease family, Classification, diseases causes, pathogenecity, lab diagnosis, treatment and control measures

Emerging Bacterial Diseases

This topic discusses about the upcoming bacteria infections


This topic delas with the non- Enterobacteriaceae family of bacteria like Pseudomonas  aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. Its family, clinical diseases, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods.

Haemophilus and Rickettsia

This topic discusses about the other Gram negative bacterial groups like Haemophilus and Rickettsia spp. Its characters, pathogenecity, diseases caused, lab diagnosis, control and treatment procedures.

Chlamydial infections

About Chalmydial diseases- its diagnosis and treatment measures

Sexually transmitted bacterial diseases

This lecure describes about the sexually transmitted bacterial diseases like Syphilis, Chlamydiosis and Gonorrhoea. Its causative agents, pathogenecity, sources, lab diagnosis, treatment and control measures.

MLAB 471  -  Clinical Bacteriology-I
Units Hours
Theoretical Practical
15 3 2
Course Catalog Description

This course covers systemic pathogenic bacteria including mycoplasmal, rickettsial and chlamydial diseases of humans, their pathogenesis, modes of transmission, epidemiology, methods for isolation and identification. Areas of study include: aerobic Gram-positive cocci, bacilli and acid fast bacilli, Haemophilus, Brucella, Bortedella, Neisseria and Enterobacteriaceae, as well as methods of testing their susceptibility to antibacterial agents.

Course Requirements

Pre-requisites for this course : General Microbiology (MLAB-352)


Required Text(s)

·         Mim’s Medical Microbiology. Richard V Goreing, 4th edition (2008); Publisher: Elsevier publications

·         Ananthanarayanan R and CK Jayaram Panicker, 1994, Textbook of microbiology Orient Longman

·         Medical Microbiology by Murray and others. Last Edition. Publisher: Mosby


1.      Microbiology by Harvey, Champe and Fisher. Second Edition (2007)

2.      Mackie and Mc catney, 1994, Medical Microbiology No I and II. Churchill Livingston, 14th edition.

3.      Chakraborty P 1995, A Text book of microbiology, New Central Book Agency Pvt Ltd. Calcutta.


Dr.Mohamudha Parveen Rahamathulla

Grading Policy
Evaluation Type Weight
   1 .  First Mid term Examination 10 % ()
   2 .  Second Mid term Examination 10 % ()
   3 .  Final Practical Examination 20 % ()
   4 .  Final Theory Examination 50 % ()
   5 .  Participation & Assignment works 10 % ()
Learning Outcome
Outcome Proficiency Assessment
   1 .  Knowledge: Outline all fundamental concept of Bacteriology Write , perform and interpret the laboratory tests individually Recognize the methods of bacterial cultivation Tell about anaerobic bacteria Describe the clinical relevance and evidence based decision making • First midterm exam • Second midterm exam • Attendance and participation • Final Examination
   2 .  Cognitive Skills: Develop to think critically and analytically Compare a clinical problem with the clinical sample Justify the given clinical data Justify the specimens that taken from patients and how to deal with them Explain the causative agent (microorganism) and its susceptibility pattern Write a lab report and interpret with the disease condition/clinical applications • Written exam • Assignments and Class discussions • Evaluation of lab reports and examinations
   3 .  Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility Use the skills of good listening Choose the responsibility for different aspects of the group work Show the skill of self-learning Show the skills of respecting teachers, colleagues and others Use the skill of team work • Active class participation reflects the students ability to keep up with the reading schedule • Performance on midterms and final exams are evidence of the student’s ability to recollect and synthesize information
   4 .  Communication, Information Technology, Numerical: Illustrate using PowerPoint and laptop – projector systems Interpret the information needed using internet Illustrate using PowerPoint and laptop – projector systems Interpret the information needed using internet
   5 .  Psychomotor Examine the microorganism by microscopy, colonial morphology on cultures and confirmatory tests. Illustrate the susceptibility of the microorganisms to antimicrobials Demonstrate basic microbiological instruments Assignment Practical test to identify microscopic and cultures spots and instruments
Week Description - Reading  



·         General Characteristics of bacteria

·         Taxonomy and Classification of bacteria


Normal microbial flora of human body:


·         General attributes and virulence factors of bacteria causing infections

·         Exotoxins, enterotoxins, endotoxins, neurotoxins

·         Host Parasite relationships


Harmful Microbial Interactions with Human:


·         Entry of pathogens into the host

·         Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity, colonization and growth

·         Host factors for infection and innate resistance to infection


Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Gram positive organisms- I


·         Staphylococci

·         Streptococci

·         Pneumococci


Gram positive organisms-II: 


·         Bacillus

·         Clostridium

·         Corynebacterium 



Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterium spp.


·         Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

·         Mycobacterium leprae


Anti-tuberculosis treatment


Treatment of tuberculosis, MDR TB


Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Enterobacteriaceae-I:


·         Escherichia coli

·         Klebsiella

·         Proteus


Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Enterobacteriaceae-II:


·         Shigella

·         Enterobacter

·         Yersinia




·         Serratia

·         Salmonella


Emerging bacterial diseases


Study about newly upcoming pathogenic diseases caused by bacteria


Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Non- Enterobacteriaceae


·         Pseudomonas

·         Vibrio 


Morphology, pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of Gram negative bacteria


·         Haemophilus

·         Rickettsia


Chamydial infections


Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia pneunoniae


Sexually transmitted diseases:


·         Gonorrhea

·         Syphilis