This is a branch still in its infancy. Study of life in outer space comes under its perview.

Exo microbiology (or Astro microbiology): The study of microorganisms in outer space

Astrobiology is the scientific discipline that focuses on the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. Most efforts aiming at understanding the origin of life on Earth, and the possibility that life might exist elsewhere, are directed to the study of microorganisms. This is so because on Earth, microorganisms are the most abundant and widespread forms of life, and are seemingly able to colonise virtually every environment that can support life. Furthermore, small and relatively simple cells are more likely to originate first on a planet than large and complex multicellular organisms, and are also more likely to be transported from one planet to another in the process of panspermia. Hence the term Astro(micro)biology

Key Concepts:

·         The study of life in the Universe requires an interdisciplinary approach.

·         Mars is the prime target for the search for life beyond the Earth.

·         The primary focus of planetary exploration is concerned with planets having liquid water.

·         Terrestrial analogue environments share physical, chemical, geological, mineralogical and any other type of environmental similarity with another planetary body.

·         Meteorites represent the main source of extraterrestrial material available to scientist.

·         Extrasolar planets are a likely candidate to provide the first evidence of life outside the Earth.


Bacteria & bacterial spores

Bacillus cereus

Bacillus megaterium

Bacillus mycoides

Bacillus pumilus

Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus thuringiensis

Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium butyricum